In computer science, immutability refers to the property of an object or data structure that cannot be modified after it has been created. In other words, an immutable object is one whose state cannot be changed once it is initialized.
Immutability is an important concept in programming, particularly in functional programming, where it is a core principle. Immutable data structures are often used in functional programming because they simplify code and eliminate many of the problems associated with mutable state, such as race conditions and unexpected behavior due to shared state.
In addition to simplifying code and reducing bugs, immutable data structures also have other advantages. For example, they can be shared between threads and processes without the need for locks or other synchronization mechanisms, which can improve performance and scalability.
Immutable objects are typically created by initializing all of their properties at the time of creation, and then never modifying them again. Some programming languages, such as Java and Python, provide support for creating immutable objects directly, while others, such as C++, require more manual effort to create immutable data structures.